Missouri is a state located in the Midwestern United States. It is the 21st most extensive, and the 18th most populous of the fifty states. The state comprises 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. As defined by the 2010 US census, the four largest urban areas in order of population are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, andColumbia.
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The land that is now Missouri was acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase and became known as the Missouri Territory. Part of this territory was admitted into the union as the 24th state on August 10, 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso, after it had been a Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States.
The territorial slave code was enacted in 1804, a year after the Louisiana Purchase, under which slaves were banned from the use of firearms, participation in unlawful assemblies, or selling alcoholic beverages to other slaves. It also severely punished slaves for participating in riots, insurrections, or disobedience of their masters. It also provided for punishment by mutilation of a slave who sexually assaulted a white woman; a white man who sexually assaulted the female slave of another was charged with trespassing upon her owner’s property.
The code was retained by the State Constitution of 1820.
At the end of 1824, the Missouri General Assembly passed a law providing a process for enslaved persons to sue for freedom and have some protections in the process.
An 1825 law passed by the General Assembly declared Blacks as incompetent as witnesses in legal cases which involved Whites, and testimonies by black witnesses were automatically invalidated.
In 1847, an ordinance banning the education of blacks and mulattoes was enacted. Anyone caught teaching a black or mulatto person, whether enslaved or free, was to be fined $500 and serve six months in jail.
Elijah Lovejoy edited an abolitionist newspaper, the Observer, in St. Louis, before being driven out by a mob. He fled across the Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois where he was later killed in an exchange of gunfire with a pro-slavery mob. In his honor the FAU St Louis’s online journal will be named the FAU Observer.
At the beginning of the Civil War, emancipation was not a popular sentiment among Union Army officers. “The few officers who did support emancipation were clearly animated by politics,” wrote historian Mark Grimsley. “Politically Fremont was associated with the faction of the Republican party known as the radicals, who wanted to make the abolition of slavery one of the official objectives of the war.
On August 30, 1861, General John Frémont declared martial law in Missouri. He also ordered the emancipation of slaves in the state. Historian William Earnest Smith wrote: “Fremont rose early on the morning of August 30. At dawn he called for Edward Davis of Philadelphia to come to hear him read the draft of his emancipation order ‘that first gave freedom to the slaves of rebels, and which he had thought out and written in the hours taken from his brief resting time.’ The Order was published in the Democrat on August 31. The editors called it the ‘most important document which has yet appeared in the progress of the war,’ and begged for it the support of ‘every faithful man, by every word and deed.’”
As one of the border states, Missouri was exempt from President Abraham Lincoln‘s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation decreeing the freedom of slaves in all territory then held by Confederate forces.
On January 11, 1865, a state convention approved an ordinance abolishing slavery in Missouri by a vote of 60-4, and later the same day, Governor Thomas C. Fletcher followed up with his own “Proclamation of Freedom.”
The history of large-scale slavery in the State of Missouri began in 1720, when a man named Philippe François Renault brought about 500 negro slaves from Saint-Domingue to work in lead mines near the Rivière des Pères, a river located in the present-day St. Louis and Jefferson counties. Prior to that date, slavery in Missouri under French colonial rule had been practiced on a much smaller scale, as compared to elsewhere in the French colonies.
The institution of slavery only became prominent in the area following two major events: the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney (1793). This led to the westward migration of slave-owning settlers into the area of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, then known as Upper Louisiana. The majority of slave owners in Missouri had moved from worn-out agricultural lands of North Carolina, Tennessee,Kentucky, and Virginia. However, the spread of cotton cultivation was limited to the more southerly area, near the border with present-day Arkansas. Slavery in the other areas of Missouri was concentrated in other major crops and agricultural industries, such as tobacco, hemp, grain, and livestock. A number of slaves were hired out as stevedores, cabin boys, or deck hands for the ferries of the Mississippi River.
By 1860, only 36 counties in Missouri had 1,000 or more slaves, male slaves fetched a price of up to $1,300. In the State Auditor’s 1860 report, the total value of all slaves in Missouri was estimated at approximately US $44,181,912.