Zimbabwe Government

fau-zimbabwe-map

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa

Government type:
semi-presidential republic

Capital:
name: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Sister City Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Administrative divisions:
8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Independence:
18 April 1980 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution:
previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013; amended many times in 2013; note – significant amendments proposed in early 2015 (2016)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Presidents Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA and Phelekezela MPHOKO (both since 12 December 2014);
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); note – following the 31 July 2013 presidential election, the position of prime minister was abolished
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits);

election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

2013 election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote – Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note –  both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns

Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies – 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces – by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ZANU-PF 37 MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ZANU-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 1

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court, regional magistrate courts, and special courts

Political parties and leaders:
Freedom Party [Cosmas MPONDA]
Movement for Democratic Change – Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]
Movement for Democratic Change – Renewal or MDC-R [Sekai HOLLAND]; note – has been kicked out of Parliament as of 17 May 2015
Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]
United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Japhet MOYO]
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Irene PETRAS]

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry THOMAS (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618

Flag description:
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people

National symbol(s):
Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white

National anthem:
name: “Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe” [Northern Ndebele language] “Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe” [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994

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